Diet for Calcium Oxalate Stones

Introduction

Urinary calculi or kidney stones may be formed in the kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra. They consist of an organic matrix with interspread crystals and vary in size from fine granual to large stones.

          The majority of urinary calculi are made up of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid or magnesium ammonium phosphate. In India, the most common type of calculi is calcium oxalate.

          Calcium oxalate stones are formed when the urine becomes oversaturated with oxalate while the amount of intestinal calcium is limited. When your fluid intake decreases and your intake of oxalate increases, the oxalate sediment starts to build up in your kidneys, predisposing you to stone formation, according to "Williams Textbook of Endocrinology."

 Kidney stones removed from patient's bod 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES OF CALCIUM FOR INDIANS

   

Age Group

 

 

          RDA of Calcium (mg/day)

 

 

 Man

 Sedentary work

 Moderate work

 Heavy Work

 Woman

 Sedentary Work

 Moderate Work

 Heavy Work

 Pregnant Woman

 Lactation

 0-6 Months

 6-12 Months

 Infants

 0 -6 Months

 6-12 Months

 Children

 1-3 Years

 4-6 Years

 7-9Years

 Boys

 10-12 Years

 13-15 Years

 16-18 Years

 Girls

 10-12 Years

 13-15 years

 16-18 Years

 

                           

                              400

                              400

                              400

 

                               400

                               400

                               400

                              1000

 

                              1000

                              1000

 

                                500

                                500

 

                                400

                                400

                                400

 

                                600

                                600

                                500

 

                                600

                                600

                                500

 

Sypmtoms of kidney stones:

Pain usually begins in mid or lower back and spreads to your abdomen as the stone moves toward your bladder. Some of the symtoms incude: 

 ETIOLOGY:

 

FLUIDS

In all cases, patients need more fluid after exertion and during times of stress. If they drink enough, the urine should be pale and almost watery, not dark and yellow.

 Fluids and side effects:

Lemon juice: Drinking one cup of lemon juice everyday increases citrate levels in the urine which helps to protect against calcium stones.

Orange juice: Orange doses not lower calcium, it raises oxlate levels. Therefore orange juice is not recommended for calcium stones.

Cranberry and apple juice: Cranberry and apple juice increases the risk of calcium stones.

Grapefruit juice: Studies have found a risk for stones from drinking grapefruit juice.

Soft drinks should be avoided. Beer and other alcoholic beverages contain purines which may increase the less common uric acid stones.

Water:

 Although water is best, it may vary depending on its source. Variations in water itself may have different impacts. Water hardness (meaning how much calcium is in the water) generally plays only a small role in stone formation. By far, the amount of fluid intake is most important in preventing stones.



How do fluids help?

Types of fluids which can be used

Types of fluids to be avoided

How much to drink?

Drinking fluids helps in preventing all types of kidney stones.

Water is the best option

Black tea is not recommended for people who have a tendency to get kidney stones as it contains high amount of oxalates.

Depends mainly on the weather and the person’s activity level

Drinking enough fluids help in keeping the urine diluted and in flushing out the stone forming minerals from the body.

Some studies recommend citrus fruit juices. They may help in preventing calcium oxalate and uric acid stones but may be harmful for people with calcium phosphate stones.

Grapefruit juice, cranberry juice and dark colas should be avoided by people who are prone to develop calcium oxalate kidney stones.

People living in tropical countries need to drink more water. Approximately two and a half to three litres of fluid are required for people living in tropics in summer.

 

Moderate intake of beer and wine may protect against stone formation.

 

People with kidney stones should drink water and other liquids to produce at least two litres of urine each day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     DIET AND KIDNEY STONES

Diet is one of the factors which can influence kidney stone formation. Dietary restrictions of different types of nutrients have to be followed for different types of kidney stones.

CALCIUM RICH FOODS mCAN BE TAKEN :

OXALATE RICH FOODS TO BE AVOIDED

 

FOODS TO BE INCLUDED

Studies conducted at National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (1985)showed that L-Tartaric acid, a component of tamarind is an inhibitor of urolithiasis and wheat based diets had properties which can be considered conducive to uric acid and calcium oxalate crystalluria.

PRINCIPLES OF DIET:

ALLOWANCES

   Water=2.5 -3 litres

    Salt= 4 gm

    Milk=200 ml       

 

MENU FOR CALCIUM OXALATE STONES

 

 

Time

 

 

Menu

 

Early Morning (6.00 am)

 

 

Plantain rhizome juice – 25ml  (Monthly Twice)./ Barley boiled water- 250 ml.

 

Morning(6.30 am)

 

 

Thin Milk-150 ml. 2 Marie biscuit

 

Breakfast (8.00-8.30 am)

 

 3 -4 Idly/ 3 Dosa/ 3 Chapathy/ Macaroni- 1 cup/ Noodles-1 cup/Bread-3 slices/1 Cup Broken Wheat Upma or Bansi Rava Upma with ¼ cup dhal. 

 

MidMorning (11.00 am)

 

 

1 cup Tender coconut water-1 Cup/ Cranberry Juice- 1 cup. Vegetable Salad/ Fruit salad. 

 

Lunch (1.00 pm)

 Menu6

 1 Cup cooked Rice +2 Chapathies +100 ml Butter Milk+1 cup Boiled Vegetables. 50 gms Greens (weekly once).

 

Evening  (4.00pm)

 

 

Lemon juice-200 ml and steamed corn.

Dinner (8.30 pm)  Menu9

Bread-3 slices/3-4 Idly/ 2-3 Dosa/ 2 Chapathy/ 1 Cup Broken Wheat Upma or Bansi Rava Upma with 50 gm Dhal.

 

 

Bedtime(9.00 pm)

 Menu10

 

Thin Milk-150 ml.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

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